Knee and Leg Surgery

Injuries and Treatment

The knee joint is formed where the thigh bone (femur) articulates with the leg bones (tibia and fibula). The kneecap (patella) glides along a groove in the thigh bone, making up the patellofemoral articulation.

In addition to the muscles surrounding it, the knee is stabilized by four major ligaments. The two cruciate ligaments (ACL and PCL), which sit inside the joint, provide rotational and front-to-back (anterior-posterior) stability while the two collateral ligaments (MCL and LCL), on the sides of the joint, offer side-to-side stability.

The knees have specialized structures called the medial meniscus and lateral meniscus which serve as ‘shock absorbers’ helping to protect the delicate articular cartilage on each side of the joint. Articular cartilage is a unique collection of cells on the bone surfaces that allow the bones to glide smoothly within a joint; it is the main structure involved in arthritis and degenerative changes (wear and tear) in the knee.

All the components of the knee have the potential to generate pain. Your orthopedic surgeon will take a thorough medical history, perform a physical exam, and review the appropriate imaging studies to help determine the main source(s) of pain. From there, treatment options can be discussed. Surgical and non-surgical treatments can be handled by Dr. Kasraeian and the Jacksonville Knee Surgery and St. Augustine Knee Surgery specialists at Orthopaedic Associates of St. Augustine.

The following links are provided to help you gather information you may need or want to discuss your treatment options more fully with Dr. Kasraeian.

Knee & Leg AAOS Links


Tears and Instability


Pain Syndromes


Joint Replacement

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